Thursday, April 2, 2020
STAY IN FOCUS: REMEMBERING YOUR AUDIENCE AND MESSAGE When youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the middle of a copywriting job, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an age-old marketing maxim that can be hard to remember Ã¢â¬â and it can sometimes be hard to convey to clients: You canÃ¢â¬â¢t be all things to all people. Good copy does two things: It speaks to a specific, targeted audience AND it has a specific, focused message. The two go hand in hand. If you try to talk to several target audiences at once, or if your message is too broad, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up with copy thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the equivalent of lukewarm, watery coffee. No one wants that. How to Find Your Target Audience: A target audience can still be fairly broad, but it needs to be identified. Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a matter of asking your client. Sometimes, they might not know. A few ways to sort and identify target audiences is by: 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Profession 4. Interest/Hobby 5. Income You may find that, more often than not, your target audience falls in between several of those categories. For instance, I would guess that video game companies traditionally target young men under 30 with time and cash to spare. Another way to identify your target audience is to ask questions such as Who is buying your product or service? and Who do you want to pay attention to you? When you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a defined audience, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t have defined copy. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t, for instance, write a marketing piece thatÃ¢â¬â¢s aimed at national advertisers, local businesses, customers, and teenagers. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because these group have no common links Ã¢â¬â they each have their own needs, their own perspective. YouÃ¢â¬â¢d be better off creating marketing materials for each group, because trying to write a single piece directed to all of them is going to be a jumbled, generic disaster. How to Choose a Specific Message: Your message always comes AFTER you identify your target audience. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because you canÃ¢â¬â¢t start crafting a message until you know who youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking to, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be interested in this product or service, or why they need it. Now, all copy needs to be persuasive, well-written, and focused on identifying differentiators and benefits. Once again, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t be all things to all people. Your message should do two things: 1. It should identify a problem that your target market faces. 2. It should offer a solution to that problem. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified both the problem and the solution, start crafting single sentence theses. This wonÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily be your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s slogan or new campaign, but it will help keep your thoughts organized as you develop your marketing materials. And it will help you identify different angles and avenues for your marketing campaign. For example, a new energy drink could take many different routes with an email advertising campaign. Here are some examples of marketing messages (not slogans) that the company could take: DrinkX gives you the energy you need without the jitters you get from caffeine or the crash you get from sugary drinks. Five great flavors means you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t only get the energy you need from DrinkX Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢ll actually enjoy drinking it. The first message focuses on the fact that DrinkX doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contain caffeine or sugar. The second message is all about taste (literally). Either message may work, as long as it correctly addresses a problem that the target audience perceives concerning energy drinks (either, a problem with energy drinks causing jitters, or a problem with energy drinks tasting terrible). Now, if the message you use is the wrong one, you may end up wasting a lot of cash. But, if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t decide between the messages, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the same problem: spending a lot of money going back and forth, trying to target different audiences. Applying the Message: Where do you go from there? Well, there are a couple of options. For small campaigns, keep things simple: try two targeted landing pages on your website. Draw traffic with pay-per-click ads and measure the results. Which one does better? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the correct message; stick with it. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re launching a massive marketing campaign with print, radio, web, and TV ads, you have a few options. You can run complete campaigns in different regions and see which one does better (lots of cash required for this option). A more affordable route is to do some basic surveys on your own Ã¢â¬â via email or phone Ã¢â¬â to find out what your target audience really cares about. In Review: ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a process to it all, a method to the copywriting madness. And it goes like this: 1. Identify your target audience 2. Identify your message 3. THEN start writing Ã¢â¬ ¦
Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Big Secret of ACT Science It's More Reading Than Science SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Why is the ACT Science section so scary?When I took it the first time, it was fast paced, had a lot of difficult science terms, and seemed challenging. I think manystudents have a similar experience because the ACT Science section is unlike any other test you've taken, and is so different from the PSAT and SAT. But there's a critical secret to ACT Science - you actually don't need to know much about science to do well. Instead, you need to be able to practice critical reasoning well - this is the fundamental basis for ACT Science! In this article, I'll try to make the ACT Science section less mysterious. Hopefully, by the end of this article, you'll understand that any student can get a 36 on the ACT Science section - no matter what grades you got in your science classes. Do You Need High-Level Science Knowledge to Succeed on ACT Science? While you would think the section would test high-level science knowledge, there is very little actual science knowledge necessary, only around 4 questions out of 40 rely on outside science knowledge. Instead, you need to have reading skills to succeed on the ACT Science section. Huh? But I can't read. Counterintuitive, I know, but the ACT Science section purposely focuses on basic skills. Think about the logic. The ACT is a nationwide test, administered to over a million students every year.Every student takes different levels of science. Some take AP/IB level tests. Others don't even fulfill the high school requirements for basic science courses. Thus, it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be fair for the ACTto test AP or IB level Physics, Biology, Chemistry, or Environmental Science knowledge because few peoplein high school cantake all of that science at the advanced level. Thus, ACT Science needs to be a level playing field, nationwide. So what does it actually test? What Reading Skills Does the ACT Science Section Test? I'll discuss the major critical reading skills needed for ACT Science. Once you understand these, you'll see why you'll be able to excel on ACT Science, no matter what your grades were in your science classes. Reading Skill Type #1: Reading Visuals for Scientific Data Mostquestions test your ability to understand scientific data by reading graphs, charts, and other visuals (such as diagrams and scatterplots). To make the test challenging, ACT, Inc.,tests these basic skills of reading visuals in unique ways, using strange graphs that you've never seen before, such as this one below: Yes, this is a real ACT Science section graph. Most of the questions on the ACT Science section can be answered by just reading the visuals.Using only the graph above, solve this problem: Although the graph gives many different pieces ofinformation, ignore all of the extrainformationand just focus on what the question is asking.Does S depend on frequency? Labels are very important.I can find the graphs of S by looking at the top of the graph and seeing where S is labeled. At all of the different values of S, S is graphed as a vertical line. As frequency increases (which happens along the y-axis), the S is unchanged (remains constant). Therefore, the answer is J. Learn aboutthe 3 types of ACT Science Passages for more information about this strategy. Reading Skill Type #2: Skimming For the questions you canÃ¢â¬â¢t answer using the visuals, you'll be able to answer them by reading the passage. The only questions you will not be able to answer with visuals or the passage are the 4 previous knowledge questions that I mentionedearlier. The ACT Science section tries to make the passage more difficult by throwing in large scientific terms.Don't be afraid of them. The ACTtypically either explainswhat the words mean, orit is not necessary to know what the words mean to answer the question. The passage below has big terms like acid-base titration and nitrazine, yet we will easily solve a question from the passage. With only 35 minutes to answer 40 questions (52.5 seconds per question), you cannot afford to waste time reading the entire passage. I recommend going directly tothe questions. Try to answer the questions first by reading visuals. Then, if you're really stuck, try to skim the passage to answer the question. If you don't like this strategy, you can start by skimming the passage and then answering questions, but you do not have the luxury of leisurely reading the entire passage. Check out the passage and question below: To the answer this question, you need to start by looking at Figure 2 for Experiment 2. Be sure to look at the right data, make sure you are looking at Experiment 2 Figure 2, not Experiment 1 Figure 1. Otherwise, you could end up with the wrong answer. At 0.2 mL of titrant added, the color was yellow. At 1.8 mL of titrant added, the color was blue, so you can eliminate B and D. However, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what the difference between yellow and blue means in terms of pH, so you need to skim.You only need this sentence from the very end of the introduction to find the final answer. So, according to the passage, blue means greater pH than yellow, so the answer is A. You can now see how skimming can quickly lead you to the correct answer, but is skimming always the best approach to answering ACT Science questions? Exception to Skimming Rule The only exception to the skimming rule is on the Conflicting Viewpoints Passage. (See our article on the 3 types of ACT Science Passages for an in-depth summary of Conflicting Viewpoints Passages).There is only 1 Conflicting Viewpoint Passage per test (out of a total of 7 Science passages).This passage has no visuals, only words. You need to read the entire passage. You need to figure out how the two scientists, students, or theories differ in opinion. After reading this passage, you should be able to discern that Scientist 1 thinks the object was a comet while Scientist 2 thinks the object was an asteroid. To answer question 12, you must have read the entire passage, includingthe introduction.If you read the introduction, you know it says the object was between 10 and 100 m in diameter. If comets are much larger than 100 m in diameter, then the object could not have been a comet. That would definitely weaken Scientist 1Ã¢â¬â¢s argument that the object was a comet.So, the answer is G. But the main point, again, is this - you don't need to know anything about the science underlying this passage. You need to read effectively and employ critical reasoning. Side note: the introductions in ACT Science passages often hold nuggets of gold because the ACT Science test makers realize most students are likely to skip it. Don't miss out! Conflicting Viewpoints Passages test your reading comprehension ability, very similar to the passages in the Reading section.Be sure to pay close attention when reading Conflicting Viewpoints passages.So, if you were freaking out about ACT Science, take a breather. You can get a C in Biology and still do well on ACT Science. But that doesn't mean you don't have to work hard and practice. How Do You Improve These Reading Skills To Do Well on ACT Science? Suggestion #1: Reading Science Journals and Articles Since the ACT Science Passages are similar, it'll give you a leg up since you'll already be familiar with reading this type of passage.You'll be more familiar with the scientific method and looking at scientific data. I recommend Science Daily. Itis a free science news source, and the articles are very easy to understand. Check out this article abouta study onpeanut allergies. I recommend reading their articles as well as the original journal article (which they link to at the bottom of their articles). While Science Daily does not use many visuals on their site, the journal articles typically have unique graphs and visuals. Such as this one from the peanut allergy study: When reading the Science Daily articles, you should ask yourself questions as a test. In particular, run through these questions: What is the main point of the experiment? What was the hypothesis? How were the experiments supposed to validate the hypothesis? When looking at the visuals in the related journal articles, what is being depicted? This is how scientific research works, and this is what ACT Science expects you to be able to decipher. Suggestion #2: Do Well in Your Science Classes While your classes will likely be more challenging than the actual ACT science section, they'll also help you become more familiar with the scientific method and looking at scientific data. Review ACT Science while you take science classes. The more basic science terms you know, the easier the ACT Science section will be and the faster you will be able to answer questions. Suggestion #3: Practice As I said before, the Science section is more about reading graphs and tables,so you need to drill this skill.Also, the Science is one of the most time sensitive sections of the test.With only 5 minutes per passage and less than 1 minute per question, no matter how well you understand the material, you need practice.Find good study material. Check out these recommended books.Check out PrepScholarÃ¢â¬â¢s program.PrepScholar breaks down each section into the skills you need to master, then gives you focused practice on each skill. This way you work on your weaknesses, whether that's interpreting data or understanding the basis for experiments. What's Next? I hope understanding this brings you a big sigh of relief. You DON'T have to be a science expert to do well on ACT Science. But you DO need to know exactly how ACT Science tests you, and you need to know how to practice to excel at it. Learnthe 3 types of ACT Science passages, the only actual science you need to know for the ACT Science section, what's tested on ACT Science, andthe best way to read ACT Science passages. Like this article? Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Sciencelesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Critical Approaches to the Online Learning - Assignment Example Professor Michael Porter, supported the idea of creating the online courses with the condition that it should be run in a manner that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ruin the class-room concept of study. Professor Porter puts it simple and clear: Ã¢â¬Å"A company must stay the course, even in times of upheaval, while constantly improving and extending its distinctive positioningÃ¢â¬ (Useem). The theory of Porter holds that the programs that exists need not be disrupted in any form on the other hand the online learning should be introduced as an additional program (Useem). This theory holds that an introduction of the new program should be a way of reinforcing the strategy that is already in place.Leading University departments like the Harvard Business School have opted on the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in the expense of ChristensenÃ¢â¬â¢s. Instead of disrupting the traditional Masters in Business Administration and the programs that relate to executive education; online education is introduced as a n option in the business education sector (Porter).Professor Clayton Christensen believed that for universities to be more competitive and lead in the market, they are to disrupt the Ã¢â¬Ëold modelÃ¢â¬â¢ of teaching and embrace the online method (Porter). This is seen as a method that will embrace technological changes and the same time increase the number increases the number of students that are reached per lecture. Professor Christensen believes that through the disruptive approach the process will be less costly and simple.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Comparison between Urdu and English - Essay Example The writers, poets, scholars and philosophers of that era created literature in this newly-advent language, and added thousands of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hindi, Sanskrit, Punjabi and Bengali words in Urdu language. It is therefore it was aptly viewed to be the lashkari or military language, which had sought support and inspiration from divergent armies and militia. Consequently, Urdu won the status of an independent language by 16th century onward carrying distinguished literature, grammar, vocabulary, phonetics and syntax. History: Urdu language remained a matter of great controversy and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims in the aftermath of the fall of Muslim rule in India in 1857. The British particularly aggravated the conflict by declaring it the language of the Muslim community only because of its writing style that takes after Arabic and Persian. During 1860s, the prejudiced Hindus raised demonstrations and demanded for the replacement of Urdu with Hindi alphabetic sty le. The Hindus declared Urdu as an alien language, which had no roots in Indian sub-continent. Similarly, the British looked for the implementation of their own language i.e. English after dismissing the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar (1837-1857) from the helm of the government. However, the Muslims turned out to be successful in protecting Urdu as one of the most prominent and powerful sources of communication among the Indian subjects, as Rashid Banarsi views: Ã¢â¬Å"Agar Urdu pe bhi ilzaam hai baahar se aane ka, To phir Hindustan kis ka vatan hai ham nahi samjhey.Ã¢â¬ (Translation: Ã¢â¬Å"If there are charges against Urdu, that it too is an outsider, Then whose homeland is India? We donÃ¢â¬â¢t understandÃ¢â¬ ). (Lee, 1999, p. 337-38) Prominent Urdu Writers: Thus, Urdu remained as one of the most dominant Indian languages till the partition of India in August 1947. The Founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, declared Urdu as the only official language of the then recently established state of Pakistan; however, it was also included as one of the twenty two official languages of the liberated India. Wali Daccani is regarded as the first poet of Urdu language, though Mirza Asad Ullah Ghalib (1797-1869) is unanimously and undisputedly revered as the greatest and the most influential poet of the Urdu language. Somehow, Mir Anees, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Mir Taqi Mir, Daagh Delhvi, Deputy Nazir Ahmad, Haider Ali Aatish, Iqbal, Faiz, Sahir, Perveen Shakir, Saghir Siddiqui and others are also great names in the long list of Urdu poets and writers. Relationship between Urdu and English: English language won unabated applause during 17th and 18th centuries onward, the time when the Europeans started their adventures in the strategically weak countries of Asia and Africa. Being the most powerful naval and military might, England overthrew the monarchies and governments in several Asian and African continents, and captured their wealth and resources by oc cupying their political and economic systems. Consequently, they imposed their own language in all the occupied lands, and it became inevitable for the indigenous population to learn English language in order to survive in their own motherland. Gradually, the language turned out to be the secondary language of a large number of countries; the same was the case
Monday, January 27, 2020
Incredible Years Series theoretical based intervention programme A promising intervention programme should be theoretical and evidence-based. The Incredible Years programme, a well-designed and comprehensive intervention package, has strong theoretical grounds (Webster-Stratton et al., 2001). It was originally invented to treat early onset conduct problems among young children (Webster-Stratton, 2000), then was revised to prevent conduct problems by promoting social competence universally (Webster-Stratton, Reid Stoolmiller, 2008). Children who display high rates of anti-social behavior or aggression are at risk of developing conduct problems (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009b). It is found that these children experience more peer rejection and non-supportive comments from teachers (Carr, Taylor Robinson, 1991; Webster-Stratton Reid, 2002), and as a result, they dislike going to school and may display more negative emotions and behaviors (Birch Ladd, 1997). This is a vicious cycle which The Incredible Years Series are aiming to bring it to an end. The Incredible Years programme is not only targeting on children, but also the factors that contribute to the cause of such conduct problems. Webster-Stratton (2005) suggested that a disorganized home environment, ineffective parenting and teachers lack of instrumental classroom management skills were all provocative. Although it is believed that parental influence on childrens social development is the most prominent (Webster-Stratton et al., 2001), past research showed that parent training might not be effective enough, as the children only made short-term improvement at home, but not at school (Gresham, 1998; Taylor Biglan, 1998). Therefore, a multi-faceted intervention project that includes trainings for parents, teachers and children is designed (Webster-Stratton, Reid Hammond, 2004). The Incredible Years Series was compared and evaluated against single or paired training programmes; longitudinal results indicated that the childrens improvement in the integrated training serie s were longer-lasting and could sustain beyond the training setting (Webster-Stratton Hammond, 1997; Webster-Stratton, Reid Hammond, 2001; Webster-Stratton, Reid Stoolmiller, 2008). The Incredible Years Series that address multi-levelled risk factors are strongly supported by a number of theories. In the following, I shall briefly introduce the underlying theories, following by an extensive discussion on how these theoretical underpinnings are applied to the training programmes and the method of delivery. Theoretical underpinnings Behaviorism According to the theory of operant conditioning, human beings behavior is contingent upon the consequences (Butterworth Harris, 1994). Behavior is likely to be reproduced if reinforcement follows (Baer, Wolf Risely, 1968). The presentation of reinforcement not only serves the informative function to indicate the appropriateness of certain actions (Bandura, 1977), but also serves the motivational functioning that increases the probability of future production (Bolles, 1979). Childrens development is closely linked to their experiences of reinforcement. It was found that children whose parents who did not reinforce their social skills were weaker in establishing friendly relationships (Patterson Dishion, 1985). In classroom setting, appropriate use of praise and reward improves childrens classroom behavior (Pfiffner, Rosen, OLeary, 1985) and a consistent punishment system is also effective in reducing undesirable behaviors (Pfiffner OLeary, 1987). The behavioral approach explains aggression as a result of external reinforcement. Bandura (1973) proposes that by acting aggressively, some children may gain approval, power, or enhancement in self-image that reinforces them to continue. Social learning theory In agreement with the behaviorists, social learning theorists also believe in the importance of environmental stimuli (e.g. reinforcement), but it is proposed that personal determinants cannot be ignored (Bandura, 1977). Human behaviors are seen as an outcome of the reciprocal interactions between the persons and their surroundings (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009b). Bandura (1977) believes that learning can occur without personally experiencing the action and its consequences. He suggests that most children learn to use aggression through modeling. The sources can be very diverse, ranging from the mass media, peers in schools, to parents aggressive punishment. It was discovered that children with parents who had bad marital relationship had higher probability of developing conduct disorders (Webster-Stratton, 1996). The social learning theory provides a justified reason: when parents are openly criticizing each other, displaying hostility, or producing aggressive behaviors, children observe and learn to use these coercive tactics to solve conflicts (Patterson, Reid, Jones Conger, 1975). Bandura (1989) also proposed the idea of self-efficacy. It is defined as the personal evaluation of ones ability to accomplish a certain task (Harter, 1993, Kanfer Zeiss, 1983). It is believed that human beings have an innate tendency to strive for social self-efficacy with the parents, and would be discouraged if not successful (Heydenberk Heydenberk, 2007). Perceived self-efficacy influences peoples actions and beliefs, and also ones persistence in difficult times (Bandura Adams, 1977). For people who have high self-efficacy in social aspects, they expect success in forming and maintaining positive relationship with the others. For people who have low social self-efficacy, they might have experienced failures in interpersonal aspects before (Webster-Stratton Lindsay, 1999). They judge themselves as socially incompetent and put less effort in forming social relationships. Self-efficacy stems from successful experiences, vicarious learning and verbal persuasion (Bandura Adams, 1977). Ones own expectation of the probability to get contingent reinforcement (Kanfer Zeiss, 1983) and also the significant others expectations is crucial for the development of self-efficacy (Cooley, 1902). Children understand what their parents or teachers are expecting from them through verbal or non-verbal means (Webster-Stratton, 2006). If they then act according to what others expect from them, they will be contingent to the others expectations, it is called the self-filling prophecy (e.g. (Lee Bishop, 2008; Strassberg, 1995). The lower the teachers expectations on their students, the less motivation the students have (e.g. Chung Westwood, 2001; Jussim, 1989; Wigfield Harold, 1992). But it is hopeful that children can benefit a lot too when the teachers increase their support and expectations on them (Webster-Stratton, Reid Hammond, 2004). Theory of the coercive process The coercive hypothesis generated by Patterson (1982) can be regarded as an extension and integration of behaviorism and social learning theory. It starts with a social interactional perspective and considers childrens aggressive behavior as a product of repeated coercive interactions between a dyad that are created and maintained by the positive and negative reinforcement (Mesman, et al., 2008). Both members of the dyad should be responsible for the undesirable outcome (Webster-Stratton, 2000). The coercive model sees the importance of parents and teachers interactions with the children. Continuous negative reinforcement and modeling escalates both the childrens and the parents/ teachers coercive attitudes and behaviors (Patterson, Reid, Jones Conger, 1975). A reinforcement trap occurs when one member of the conflicting pair gives up during the coercive interaction (Webster-Stratton, 2005). From the viewpoint of the member who insists, this can be seen as a negative reinforcement and would encourage him/her to use such coercive tactics again (Webster-Stratton Hancock, 1998). The other member also learns by observation and modelling to escalate their aversive behaviors to avoid further failures. So, the intensity of aggression increases and accumulates after every conflict (Patterson Dishion, 1985). And children may generalize such pattern of conflict managements to other contexts. Parents fall into the reinforcement trap because of their non-contingent parenting skills and ineffective disciplinary strategies to deal with coercive behaviors (Patterson Dishion, 1985). To decrease aggression, one must change the coercive process by stopping the negative reinforcement. Parents and teachers can be taught using more effective and positive discipline methods and no longer triggers childrens aggressive behaviors, and change theirs by modeling. Attachment theory Bowlbys (1997) attachment theory emphasizes the importance of a positive parent-child relationship. It is found that children who have a loving and trusting relationship with a major caregiver are more socially competent (Lee, 1990), while children who experience hostile contacts from parents lack emotional regulatory and conflict-management strategies (Webster-Stratton, 2005). By using the strange situation, four types of attachment styles can be identified, namely secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-ambivalent and insecure-disorganized (Van Ijzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg Sagi-Schwartz, 2006). The attachment pattern highly affects how one thinks and feels (Cummings-Robeau, Lopez Rice, 2009) and has enormous influence on interpersonal functioning (Collins, 1996). Insecure attachment may develop when the parents are being inconsistent, rejecting and insensitive to childrens needs (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009b). Children with this type of attachment may have higher level of aggression and greater difficulty expressing their feelings and trusting the others (Fagot, 1997). In contrast, securely attached children possess greater social skills (e.g. Schneider, Atkinson Tardif, 2001; Weinfield, Scoufe, Egeland Carlson, 1999) and feel safe to explore the world as they trust their parents (Juffer, Bakermans-Kranenburg van IJzendoorn, 2008b). better social co mpetence (e.g. Schneider, Atkinson Tardif, 2001; Weinfield, Scoufe, Egeland Carlson, 1999). As the kind of attachment formed is closely linked to the parenting skills and parental sensitivity (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2008), Incredible Years aims to improve those elements so as to alter the attachment pattern. Moreover, the attachment theory can also be applied to the teacher-child relationship, as children also have a lot of contact with teachers (Birch Ladd, 1997). The Incredible Years Programme Based on the above theories, Webster-Stratton (1981) developed three interlocking programmes, targeting at the parents, teachers and children to promote social competence. Parent training The parent series is the most important one (Webster-Stratton et al., 2001), with four sub-sections designed for promoting different skills and accommodating children of different age groups. One of the heaviest elements in this series is the training of parenting skills. In line with the underlying behavioral theory, parents are taught the effective use of reinforcement and punishment. In order to encourage childrens exhibition of prosocial behaviors, parents make good use of reinforcers. They are guided to create a hierarchy of reinforcement that is tailor-made for their own children. Examples of powerful reinforcers are social rewards like attention, smiles and hug and social activities like going to beach together (Neville, Beak King, 1995). The way parents administer the reinforcements is very crucial they have to make sure that the reward is immediate and contingent to specific favorable behaviors; and also, children should receive the rewards together with labeled praise. Moreover, parents are reminded that materialistic rewards like money and toys may apparently seem to be incredible reinforcers, but their effectiveness may not be very long-lasting. This kind of tangible rewards is better used at times when children achieve a particular goal that is clearly defined beforehand (Webster-Stratton Herbert, 1994). Conversely, to reduce childrens aversive behaviors, parents are trained to use a wide range of methods depending on the intensity and type of misbehaviors. Examples are removing existing reinforcements like ignoring and timeout, and rewarding alternative positive behaviors (Neville, Beak King, 1995). Parents are taught not to argue and shout with the children during conflicts, as those naggings are also reinforcing, as they are parental attention. Yet, using ignoring is not easy, as parents have to be consistent and determined to neglect the child until the unwanted behavior vanishes (Webster-Stratton, 2006). Or else, parents would have been fallen into the reinforcement trap, as suggested by Pattersons (1982) coercive model. Timeout is another good strategy if used probably as it gives both the parents and the children a cooling period. Children are kept isolated for a while, and are deprived of any possible reinforcement, including parents attention (Webster-Stratton Herbert, 199 4). Using these methods can reduce childrens coerciveness, model children the peaceful way of managing conflicts and still to remain a trusting parent-child relationship. No matter it is the administration of rewards or punishments, one rule that parents must follow is to be consistent. Previous research studies show that unpredictable parenting style seriously affects the parent-child bonding and makes children feel insecure and frustrated (Lee, 1990). To manage discipline, both reinforcements and punishments may be needed (Pfiffner OLeary, 1987). The latter one should be used as last resort (Neville, Beak King, 1995), as punishments may trigger childrens anger, create tension and model unwanted, aggressive behaviors to them. Moreover, punishing for a bad behavior does not give children ideas what an appropriate behavior is. To prevent using punishments, one of the best ways is to set limits. Parents can set clear, realistic and positive goals with the children (Webster-Stratton, 2005). With limit setting, coercive process of aggression can be prevented, and childrens experience of reaching goals or keeping within the limits reinforces them, and enhances their social self-efficacy (Webser-Stratton Reid, 2007). According to the expectancy theory, when children recognize that parents have high but reasonable expectations on them, their self-confidence is enhanced and self-fulfilling prophecy predicts that they will try hard to act accordingly. To enhance childrens self-esteem, the support from parents is essential (Harter, 1993). According to Bandura (1977), ones self-efficacy can be improved by verbal persuasion. Parents should view their children in a positive way, accept their weakness and encourage them to think positively about themselves (Webster-Stratton, 2006). For elder kids, parents can try to involve them more in family meetings, limit settings, or any other activities can require collaborative decisions (Coopersmith, 1967), so that children have more opportunities to express themselves and they might feel confident as becoming a contributor in the family (Webster-Stratton, 2000). The ADVANCE parent training programme focuses on the parents interpersonal skills. It is found that parents who have poor communicate skills and anger management strategies are more likely to have children who suffer from conduct problem (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009b). This is due to the fact children can observe and may have modeled their parents behaviors (Webster-Stratton, 1996). In this training series, parents are empowered to act as a good role-model of their children. And by modeling, parents can foster social skills and desirable learning habits to them (Webster-Stratton, 2005). Teacher training The teacher training series focuses on skills and tactics to manage a large of children (Webster-Stratton et al., 2001), mainly by using reinforcement, managing misbehavior, fostering a warm and safe environment, building positive relationships, teaching social and problem-solving skills (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Although the target is different, the major concepts used in the teacher training are similar to that of the parent one (Webser-Stratton Reid, 2007). To promote positive behaviors, reward again is very important. Besides praising children specifically and enthusiastically, teachers, persons that are familiar with childrens learning progress, should praise children for their improvement instead of the scores they achieve. A consistent rewarding system can enhance childrens self-efficacy and social competence (Webser-Stratton Reid, 2007). Another special component of the teacher training series is the effort of teachers to collaborate with the childrens family (Webster-Stratton, 1999). It is desirable for teachers to visit their students family, so that they can better understand the students home environment and background, and thus to be more sensitive in catering the students special needs. It is equally valuable for parents to visit their childrens schools. Teachers in the Incredible Years programme are equipped with techniques to communicate and cooperate effectively with the parents (Webser-Stratton Reid, 2007). Children Training The children training series emphasizes enhancing childrens emotional literacy, social skills, conflict management and problem-solving skills (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Emotional literacy is the ability to recognize, understand, handle and appropriately express emotions (Sharp, 2001: 1). This is one of the most fundamental communication skills that children acquire in the Incredible Years student series. Children with conduct problems usually have worse emotional literacy and ability to identity and understand facial cues (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2003). The ability to convey emotional messages are closely linked to ones emotional and social health (Morrison and Matthews, 2006; Nyland, 1999). It was found that enriching emotional literacy can lead to a reduction and delinquency and aggression (Carnwell Baker, 2007); and children with higher emotional literacy have comparatively better social outcomes like having more friends (Hubbard Coie, 1994; Miller et al., 2005). Olson (1992) explained that for children who were not equipped with enough vocabularies to communicate their emotions, it was likely for them to use their bodies to express themselves. This is often quite undesirable, as for example, if the child was angry at the moment, and because he did not know how to verbalize it, he transformed his anger to physical responses and hit his classmates. Research evidence did show that the lack of emotional vocabulary and emotion understanding were correlated with aggressive behaviors (Bohnert, Crnic Lim, 2003) and ineffective conflict management (Heydenberk Heydenberk, 2005). After building up a list of emotional vocabularies and learning the usage of strategic communications skills like I messages (e.g. I want toÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, I feelÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, I hopeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, etc.), children displays significantly less anti-social behaviors (Heydenberk Heydenberk, 2007). It is easier for them to regulate their emotions (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2 009) Methods of Delivery In the Incredible Years Programme, most of the sessions involve group discussion and practice, while one-fourth of them are administered through videotape modelling (Webster-Stratton and Herbert, 1994). Group Discussion One of the goals of the Incredible Years is to provide a cost-effective intervention program. This is achieved through the use of group-based delivery (Webster-Stratton, 2000). There are around 12 to 14 participants per group, with one group leader to assist in administrative issues and encourage discussions. Besides the economical value, the group setting allows parents or teachers to share and normalizes their experiences (Webster-Stratton, 1981), to provide support for each other, and to facilitate modeling (Webster-Stratton, 2004). When parents or teachers know that there are so many other people that are encountering the same difficulties as they do, they feel more relieved and confident with their parenting or teaching skills. Video Modelling and live modeling Video Modelling is a cost-effective training method that has been extensively used in the programme (Brestan Eyberg, 1998). This method is based on Banduras (1989) theory of observational learning. It was proposed that participants would model the positive behaviors by observing the interactions shown in the videotapes (Webster-Stratton, 2005). The study done by Singer and Singer (1983) showed that children who watched a television programs that promote prosocial behaviors really exhibited significantly greater desirable behaviors upon watching. Parents are mainly shown about parent-child interactions at home during dinner, play, etc.; teachers are shown the teacher-child interactions in classroom during circle, work time and play, etc. (Webser-Stratton Reid, 2007). Some of scenes are positive, while some are negative, so the adults understand there is no perfect teaching or parenting (Juffer, Bakermans-Kranenburg van IJzendoorn, 2008a), and this may raise their self-efficacy. Seeing the adult-child relationships give them an idea how to increases childrens prosocial behaviors and reduces aggressive or aversive behaviors (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Previous research, in line with the hypothesis, indicated that children video which showed some positive peer interactions were effective in enhancing childrens politeness and friendliness and in decreasing childrens noncompliant and negative behaviors (Webster-Stratton, 1982). Unlike, one-to-one interventions, video modeling makes it possible to show different kinds of people interacting in different contexts, which creates greater generalization and participants may find it easier to apply the skills learnt in daily lives (Webster-Stratton, 2000). There are some important points to note when using modeling. First, video-makers have to ensure that the participants have affirmative feelings about the model, and they can identify with the model to some extent. One way to achieve this is to explicitly tell the participants that those models are not actors, but real parents like them. Secondly, the video must have scenes showing the model getting reward upon doing some favorable (Webster-Stratton, 1981). For example, the childrens cooperation is a kind of intangible reinforcement for the adults. Thirdly, group leaders should ensure that participants are paying attention, and not being disturbed by some external distracters. Lastly, there should be chance for the participants to practice the new skills and gain the reward as shown. In the Children Training Series, the leader and a puppet named Wally act as a live model (Webster-Stratton, 2000). The group leader uses the puppet to role-play and model a positive interpersonal interaction, so that children can learn the appropriate behaviors through vicarious experience (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). Behavioral research (Homework and practice) Homework and exercises are given to participants to try out the newly learnt skills and to apply the knowledge to real life context (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2007; Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). The role-playing exercises allow participants to understand the concepts and skill more thoroughly and clearly (Webster-Stratton, 2000). And through this, they know how it feels to use appropriate strategies in interactions. Experiences of success is very important for participants to be motivated in using such skills and real achievements can boost their self-esteem (Emler, 2001). Child-directed play Child-directed play is a useful tool in enhancing attachment and positive relationship between adults and children (Axline, 1969; Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). This kind of play can also enhance childrens social competence and self-efficacy (Lee, 1990). There are a number of techniques that aid child-directed play. First, the adults should give minimal comments, not to judge or question during the play. Adults reinforce and encourage the childrens effort, concentration, creativity and all the other positive behaviors. This can help promoting the childrens perceived competence and self-worth (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). Second, adults try to follow the childrens thoughts and allow children to have independent thinking (Webster-Stratton, 2006). There are six different child-directed play skills that can help teaching children academic and social skills, and building a positive adult-child relationship (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). First, the adults use descriptive commenting to show that they are paying attention to the children, and at the same time, to teach children important vocabularies. The joint attention reinforces children to continue playing. Second, adults can use academic coaching to teach children academic skills like counting and names of objects. Third, when children are encountered with challenges in the play, adults try to promote persistence in playing (Schunk, 1981). As suggested by Bandura (1989), the longer one stays in the difficult problems, the stronger confidence one has about his abilities. Adults use persistence coaching to encourage children by commenting on their cognitive condition. Being praised and knowing oneself as persisting, children feel reinforced and contented. Fourth, emotion coachi ng can be used to teach children feeling words. The last two are one-on-one and peer social coaching that allow children to practice playing with children, so that they can model the interaction techniques and experience real success (Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009). Conclusion The Incredible Years Series is a theoretical-based intervention programme that is found to be effective in treating or preventing childrens conduct problems in many previous research studies (e.g. Webster-Stratton, 1994; Webster-Stratton et al., 2001; Webster-Stratton Reid, 2009; Webster-Stratton, Reid Stoolmiller, 2008). A lot of developmental or educational psychologists from different countries have been trying to revise and adopt the programme to their culture, reflecting the effectiveness and popularity of the programme. All the three training modules (parents, teachers and children) place great emphasis in promoting childrens positive behaviors by reinforcement, reducing misbehaviors using sensible skills and learning effective social skills through observational learning. Overall, this is a well-planned intervention programme and it is hopeful that Incredible Years can really helping creating incredible lives for the next generation.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
"Elections, especially of representatives and counselors, should be annual, there not being in the whole circle of the sciences a maxim more infallible than this, 'where annual elections end, there slavery begins.' These great men . . . should be [chosen] once a year Ã¢â¬â Like bubbles on the sea of matter bourn, they rise, they break, and to the sea return. This will teach them the great political virtues of humility, patience, and moderation, without which every man in power becomes a ravenous beast of prey." Ã¢â¬âJohn Adams Government exists to serve the people, and not the politicians, American citizens know this. Polls show that Americans want term limitation by margins as high as three-to-one, even four-to-one. Congressional term limitation is the most important issue of our time because the future direction of our country depends upon it. There is no other way to restore government to, us, the people. There is no substitute for term limits. There are many second steps, depending upon where you sit, but there is only one first step toward turning the country around. It is con...
Saturday, January 11, 2020
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were the first and the third presidents of the United States, respectively and both were established presidents in their own ways. In George Washington's Farewell Address he advised Americans to not get entangled within foreign countries' problems and conflicts and to not have everlasting alliances and treaties. Washington also did not like the idea of having diverse political parties, and he also stressed the magnitude of religion and morality.Thomas Jefferson, in his first Inaugural Address states that a superior government ill be able to permit its citizens to be well mannered, but at the same time let them organize themselves in what they desire to do. Jefferson also says that all principles will never change. Although they were both highly respected and regarded to as some of the greatest presidents in American history they didn't always have the same opinions on what would be best for the growing nation.In his Farewell Address, George Wash ington mentions that Americans should mind American business and not be concerned with foreign conflicts because the United States had Just won a ery expensive war for their independence and already owed money to their new ally the French. This was a warning to all Americans because during that time America was still young, and it had many of its own problems to solve. Jefferson was also not in favor of getting involved with foreign entanglements.As Napoleon advanced into Europe, Jefferson decided to remain neutral in the conflict by banning all European trade from American Ports because of the British forces firing upon the Chesapeake. As harassment from Barbary pirates began to become an issue Washington was ersuaded to build up an American Navvy in order to protect those in harm and to retrieve the captured sailors. Thomas Jefferson's approach to the pirates was a little different from Washington's in that he chooses to implement a blockade of Tripoli and other Barbary ports in 1 801; these actions forced him to reconsider his advocacy of budget cuts for the American navy.These actions then allowed the American naw to become respected by the rest of the world, because it proved that they wouldn't be pushed around by anyone. Jefferson and Washington were both in favor of not etting involved in foreign entanglements as they showed through these actions and in their Addresses. George Washington specifically addressed the issue of diverse political parties. Washington thought political parties and political party dominance were very bad ideas.He wanted it to be about the best candidate being elected, not about two parties taking over and preventing all other parties from having an opportunity of being nominated. He said this because he believed it was dangerous to have power blocs arise from these different opinions. These different parties, the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists were beginning to surface had different thought which in turn caused many h eated debates and a lot of aggression towards the opposite parties. However Jefferson knew that political parties were necessary, he voiced the thought in this famous quote.Jefferson said that there is basically no way to escape the differing opinions and political parties in a successful and free nation, due to the nature of man to disagree and to form their own opinions on how they think the nation should be run. Jetterson and his close triend James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party. Jefferson and Washington both had different opinions on the subject of political parties, with Washington strongly disapproving of it and Jefferson being a founder of one of the political parties it is safe to say they didn't share the same mindset on this topic.George Washington was instrumental in stressing the importance of morality and religion. In his Farewell Address Washington that through experience religious values in a government are important. This is referring to the succes sful European nations that have an established religion integrated into their government. Jefferson agreed hat religion was important for people to be able to express and to believe in freely, however Jefferson was very vocal in trying to solidify a position between the church and the state.He was himself a Christian man and placed several god-like statements in the Declaration of Independence. Washington disagreed with Jefferson on the separation of church and state however, they both agreed religion was important in the new nation. In both of their addresses they discussed the issues involving the new government such as the issue of making alliances with other nations or becoming involved in foreign entanglements.Both Washington and Jefferson agreed that for the nation to become successful they must keep away from any foreign affairs regarding the fact that the nation was still developing and if war was to occur it would leave them more susceptible to being taken over. Each of the highly regarded presidents discussed the formation of political parties. Washington thought that political parties would destroy the new system of government. Jefferson on the contrary knew that political parties were inevitable; he then went on, with another respected colleague James Madison, to create the Democratic-RepublicanParty. The subject of religion and morality was discussed greatly in this period of time. Washington believed that for the government to be successful religion must be involved in all of the important branches such as the court systems. Jefferson on the other hand wanted to create a Ã¢â¬Å"wall of separation between church and state. Ã¢â¬ Although both of the presidents were extremely instrumental in founding and establishing this great nation, they didn't always agree with each other, which isn't bad because to create a good story you must have all points of view.